In order to increase the ecological integrity of the site, species mixtures are planted to avoid many of the negative impacts of large-scale monoculture plantings.
The combination of multiple tree species on a plot and furthermore adding vegetables and other cash crops is called an intercropping, or agroforestry system. This way, the economic risk of failure and the risk to suffer from insects, pests and diseases is mitigated, the cash flow is more evenly distributed over the timber harvesting period, the site is used more efficiently by using multiple growth niches and erosion is minimized due to the permanent vegetation cover. Biodiversity ensures the provision of ecosystem services such as an intact water cycle, the production of oxygen or carbon sequestration. Hence, the goal is to maximize the diversity of both plants and animals on productive mixed species forest and agroforestry plantations.